World Renaissances

The usual assignation of "The" Renaissance to 15th century Italian and Northern Italy has been challenged through an expanded historiography that now recognizes and elucidates the multiple manifestations of cultural, scientific and intellectual developments that characterize the notion of a renewal or renaissance.

Below are suggested examples of Multiple Renaissances worth further exploration by students of world history:

Fatimid Egypt - Art and Science

Medieval Spain:  The Experience of Toleration and Cosmopolitanism amid Fractious Politics of the Taifa Principalities

The Italian Renaissance and its Legacy

Northern Renaissance and The English Renaissance
For the Northern Renaissance and its aftermath, an especially instructive guide to interpretation are the paintings of the Flemish painters, Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-1569) and his sons Pieter Brueghel the Younger (1565-1636) and Jan Brueghel (1568-1625).
1.  (In French, but has excellent notations on the parable paintings)
2.  We'll examine Les Proverbes Flamands (1559) [Flemish Proverbs / Netherlandish Proverbs].
There is also a site that shows and highlights selected proverbs from the painting.
Columbia University guide to the painting

The Dutch Republic of the Early Modern Period

The German Enlightenment - the age of Goethe, Schiller, Kant, public education

The Ottoman Renaissances in Early Modern History

Late Tokugawa Japan and Cultural Transformations

Chinese Renaissance of the Song Dynasty (960-1276)

Tudor England.
Chronology of Tudor England  from the BBC

Isaac Newton goes digital
Newton Project
Newton's prism experiment

Giombattista Vico
Portal to the texts of Vico

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